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中考英语语法知识技巧

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掌握中考英语语法知识,中考英语成绩是差不到哪里去的。小编在此献上英语语法使用技巧,希望对你有所帮助。

省略

I.要点

有时为了避免重复,使语言简练紧凑,在不损害结构或引起误解的原则下,往往省去一个或多个句子成分或词语。

1、 固定习惯用词。如:

No smoking! Thanks s lot!等。

2. 简单句中的省略

(1) 口语中,一、二、三人称的主语,有时还包括谓语都可以省略。如:(It is)Nice to see you!

(This is) Li Ming speaking.

(2) 所有格后的名词如为住宅、商店、工矿、教堂等可以省略。如:

I'm going to visit Tom's (house).

I met him at the tailor's (shop).

(3) 两个或两个以上的动词不定式并列在一起时,第一个不定式带to,后面的不定式可省to.如: His job is to clean and mend the machine.

(4) 主(宾)语补足语中的to be常省略。He was considered (to be) the best student in the class.

(5) There be结构中 there be可同时省略,或只省略there.如:(Is there) Anything wrong?

(6) 表示年龄的years old, 表示钟点的o'clock, minute等常省略。如:What time is it now? It's ten (o'clock).

3从句中的省略

(1) 宾语从句,以which, when, where, how和why引起的宾语从句谓语与主句谓语如相同,可省略从句中全部谓语,甚至主语也可省略,仅保留wh-一词。如:

He will come, but we don't know when (he will come).

He didn't come, I wondered why (he didn't come).

(2) 定语从句中可省略作宾语的关系代词,如:

The man (whom) I saw in the street the other day is my teacher.

(3) 状语从句,在时间、地点、让步、方式、条件状语从句中,从句主语与主句主语一致,或从句主语是it,则be动词及其主语常可省略。如:

I'll tell him that when (it is) possible.

I won't go there unless (I'm) invited.

II.例题

例1 A beam of light will not bend(弯曲)round corners unless____ to do so with the help of a reflecting device(反射装置)。

A made B being made C having made D to be made

解析:该题正确答案为A。 unless后省略了it is. make sb (sth) do sth变成被动语态则为sth/ sb be made to do.

例2 While ____my homework, I heard a cry for help.

A do B did C doing D having done

解析:该题答案为C。该空处省略了I'm,相当于while I'm doing my home work.如:While playing guitar, he is singing.

it 与there be的用法

要点

1、it的用法

(1)用作人称代词,代替前文提到的无生命的事物,动植物、婴儿及指示代词this, that,如,

I have a new pen. It is beautiful.

The Browns have a new baby. It's cute.

(2)用来表示时间、天气、距离等,如,It's twelve o'clock now.

It's fine today.

(3)用作引导词,代替由不定式,ing形式或从句表示的真正的主语或宾语,如,

It's no good telling him that.

It's necessary for you to do so.

(4)用在强调结构中,构成强调句式:It is/was +被强调部分+that/who/whom +句子其余部分,可强调除谓语以外的句子其他成分,如,

It was this morning that I saw him in the street.

It was I who saw him in the street this morning.

It was in the street that I saw him this morning.

It was him whom I saw in the street this morning.

2、there be句型

英语表示某时某处或某物时,常用there be句型,这是一种倒装结构,如,

There are a lot of students playing on the ground.

There is going to be a test this afternoon.

当主语有两个或两个以上时,动词be常和最近的那个主语取得一致,如,

There is a pen and three pencils in the pencil-box.

There isn't a desk, a bench and three chairs in the room.

There are lots of people like it, aren't there?

there be句型,谓语动词除be之外,还可用其他表示存在,位置移动等意义的不及物动词或词组,如exist, stand, lie, enter, come, happen to be, appear to be等,如,

There stands a house at the foot of the hill.

there be句型表示"存在"而have表"有"、"拥有",所以there be中 be不能换成have,但当have表示事物的特征时,可用"主语+have"结构替换there be 句型,如:

There are five doors in the house.

The house has five doors.

there be 的其它句型:

1、There must be a meeting in the office.

2、There have been great changes since 1979.

3、There being no bus, we had to walk home.

I. 例题

例1 ____ that he went to sleep.

A It was until midnight B That was until midnight

C It was not until midnight D That was not until midnight

解析:该题答案为C。强调until结构时,要将否定词not移到until前。又如:He didn't leave until twelve 改为It was not until twelve that he left.

例2 There are a lot of students ____ in the class room.

A talk B talking C talked D to talk

解析:该题正确答案为B。 There be句型为倒装句,可换为A lot of students are talking in the class room. 又如:There is a lot of noise heard out in the street.


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